Law & Policy,2018年40(2):196-215 ISSN：1467-9930
[Jiang, Jize] Univ Illinois, Criminol Law & Justice, 1007 W Harrison St, Chicago, IL 60607 USA.;[Kuang, Kai] Cent S Univ, Sch Law, Changsha, Hunan, Peoples R China.
[Jiang, Jize] Univ Illinois, Criminol Law & Justice, 1007 W Harrison St, Chicago, IL 60607 USA.
While the disparate legal treatment of immigrants in Western jurisdictions has been well documented in sociolegal scholarship, the potential legal inequality experienced by rural‐to‐urban migrants in China, who have become China's largest disadvantaged social group, has not garnered much attention. To fill the gap, this article empirically examines sentencing disparities related to the Hukou status of criminal offenders by employing quantitative data on criminal case processing in China. The results of our analysis reveal that rural‐to‐urban migrant defendants are more likely to be sentenced to prison than their urban counterparts. In addition, the penalty effect of being a rural‐to‐urban migrant is further magnified in jurisdictions with a larger concentration of migrants. Our findings suggest that discrimination against rural‐to‐urban migrants has become an emerging, significant form of legal inequality in China's criminal justice system, refracting and reinforcing the deep‐seated structural inequality associated with Hukou status in China. The research and policy implications of these findings are discussed.
Li, Xianhong*;Zhang, Beichuan;Li, Yang;Antonio, Anna Liza Malazarte;Chen, Yunliang;Williams, Ann Bartley
Women and Health,2016年56(8):940-956 ISSN：0363-0242
[Chen, Yunliang; Li, Xianhong] Cent S Univ, Sch Law, 605 Lu Shan Nan Lu, Changsha 410012, Hunan, Peoples R China.;[Li, Xianhong] Cent S Univ, Xiangya Nursing Sch, Changsha, Hunan, Peoples R China.;[Zhang, Beichuan] Qingdao Univ, Coll Med, Affiliated Hosp, Qingdao, Shandong, Peoples R China.;[Li, Yang] Qingdao Sanat Shandong Prov, Dept Dermatol, Qingdao, Shandong, Peoples R China.;[Antonio, Anna Liza Malazarte] Univ Calif Los Angeles, Fielding Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Los Angeles, CA USA.
[Li, Xianhong] Cent S Univ, Sch Law, 605 Lu Shan Nan Lu, Changsha 410012, Hunan, Peoples R China.
*China;*HIV;*men who have sex with men;*mental health;*spouses;*suicidal ideation
In China, men who have sex with men (MSM) are the fastest growing population at risk for HIV. They face social stigma due to both MSM behavior and HIV. In addition, concern has been raised about the mental health of wives of MSM. In this cross-sectional study, the authors examine the mental health status of a sample of 135 of these women. Participants completed an Internet-administered questionnaire in Xi'an from April to June, 2012. Most were unaware at the time of marriage that their husbands were MSM. Physical abuse was frequently reported; depressive symptom and mental health (Symptom Checklist, SCL-90) scores were significantly higher than those of the general Chinese adult female population. A majority (59.8%) of women reported suicidal thoughts after discovering their husbands' MSM behavior; about 10% had attempted suicide. Multiple logistic regression revealed that women's experience with anal sex was associated with 7.8 times (95% CI: 1.3-65.9) greater odds of suicidal ideation. Also, women who demonstrated mental symptoms on the SCL-90 had 2.3 times (95% CI: 1.04-5.2) the odds of suicidal ideation. These results suggest that wives of MSM have a significant need for mental health care, suicide prevention, HIV education, and social support.