Using a computable partial equilibrium model, this study provides a comprehensive and prospective empirical analysis of the economic impacts of the China Australian Free Trade Agreement (ChAFTA) on global coal output, trade, consumption and welfare. Based on data from 2014, the simulated results indicate that ChAFTA has a significant trade creation effect. ChAFTA will increase Australia's coal exports to China by 35.7% and China's exports to Australia by 19.9%. However, the impacts of ChAFTA on global coal production and price are relatively limited. Results also demonstrate that ChAFTA will cause an annual net welfare loss of US$ 200 million for China and a net welfare gain of US$ 569.3 million for Australia. Moreover, Chinese consumers and Australian coal producers are the biggest beneficiaries of ChAFTA. Based on the research conclusions, we put forward some policy recommendations. (c) 2017 The Society for Policy Modeling. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
[Ji, Jiao; Anderson, David] Univ British Columbia, Dept Curriculum & Pedag, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada.;[Ji, Jiao] Cent S Univ, Sch Marxism, Changsha, Hunan, Peoples R China.;[Wu, Xinchun] Beijing Normal Univ, Sch Psychol, Beijing 100875, Peoples R China.;[Ji, Jiao] Univ British Columbia, Dept Curriculum & Pedag, 2125 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada.
[Ji, Jiao] Univ British Columbia, Dept Curriculum & Pedag, 2125 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada.
extrinsic and intrinsic motivation;science museum educators;self-determination theory;work motivation
Conceptualized by the self-determination theory, this interpretive study examined 23 museum educators' perspectives from five Chinese science museums to understand their work motivation in relation to their professional practice of working in museums. Research outcomes showed that, Chinese science museum educators' work motivation followed a common extrinsic-intrinsic pattern, in which extrinsic motivation was valued and seemed to be more influential in career decisions than intrinsic motivational factors. This finding was found to be different in a number of ways to most museum educator studies conducted in Western cultural contexts. Furthermore, sociocultural factors regarding museum educators' backgrounds and experiences as well as their institutional contexts had differential impacts on extrinsic and intrinsic motivations. This study has implications for museum-education-related researchers, policy makers, and administrators to reconsider the recruitment criteria, in-service motivating mechanism, and professional training system for museum educators in China and beyond.