Nannochloropsis oculata CCMP 525, Dunaliella salina FACHB 435, and Chlorella sorokiniana CCTCC M209220 were compared in mixotrophic and photoautotrophic cultures in terms of growth rate, protein, and lipid content. Growth improved in glucose, and the biomass productivities of N. oculata, D. salina, and C. sorokiniana were found to be 1.4-, 2.2- and 4.2-fold that observed photoautotrophically. However, biomass and lipid production decreased at the highest glucose concentrations. Meanwhile, the content of protein and lipid were significantly augmented for mixotrophic conditions at least for some species. C. sorokiniana was found to be well suited for lipid production based on its high biomass production rate and lipid content reaching 51% during mixotrophy. Expression levels of accD (heteromeric acetyl-CoA carboxylase beta subunit), acc1 (homomeric acetyl-CoA carboxylase), rbcL (ribulose 1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit) genes in C. sorokiniana were studied by real-time PCR. Increased expression levels of accD reflect the increased lipid content in stationary phase of mixotrophic growth, but expression of the acc1 gene remains low, suggesting that this gene may not be critical to lipid accumulation. Additionally, reduction of expression of the rbcL gene during mixotrophy indicated that utilization of glucose was found to reduce the role of this gene and photosynthesis.
Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) showed natural nanotubular structures with similar chemical composition to kaolin. This paper reviewed the exciting applications of HNTs due to their abundantly deposit, nanoscale lumens, high length-to-diameter ratios, and relatively low surface hydroxyl group density. HNTs have been used as ideal templates for conveniently immobilizing nanoparticles, which could enable the construction of designed nanoarchitectures that are extremely attractive as supports for heterogeneous catalysts and for use in the fuel cells and related technologies that exploited the inherent 'smallness' and hollow characteristics of the nanoparticles. The recent developments in this area by exploring the various techniques with which HNTs could be functionalized with metal nanoparticles, and the diverse applications of the resulting materials overviewed in detail. The corresponding interfacial characteristics of the nanocomposites were emphasized. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
An, Xiuli;Schulz, Vincent P.;Li, Jie;Wu, Kunlu;Liu, Jing;Xue, Fumin;Hu, Jingping;Mohandas, Narla;Gallagher, Patrick G.*
Gallagher, Patrick G.
[An, Xiuli; Hu, Jingping; Xue, Fumin] New York Blood Ctr, Lab Membrane Biol, New York, NY 10021 USA.;[Liu, Jing; Li, Jie; An, Xiuli; Mohandas, Narla; Wu, Kunlu] New York Blood Ctr, Red Cell Physiol Lab, New York, NY 10021 USA.;[An, Xiuli] Zhengzhou Univ, Coll Life Sci, Zhengzhou 450052, Henan, Peoples R China.;[Schulz, Vincent P.; Gallagher, Patrick G.] Yale Univ, Sch Med, Dept Pediat, New Haven, CT 06520 USA.;[Liu, Jing; Wu, Kunlu] Cent S Univ, Mol Biol Res Ctr, Sch Biol Sci & Technol, Changsha, Hunan, Peoples R China.
[Gallagher, Patrick G.] Yale Univ, Sch Med, Dept Pediat, 333 Cedar St,POB 208064, New Haven, CT 06520 USA.
[Hu, Jingping; An, Xiuli; Xue, Fumin] New York Blood Ctr, Lab Membrane Biol, New York, NY 10021 USA.;[Hu, Jingping] Cent S Univ, Inst Reprod & Stem Cell Engn, Changsha, Hunan, Peoples R China.;[Liu, Jing; Chen, Lixiang; Chasis, Joel Anne; Guo, Anqi; Mohandas, Narla] New York Blood Ctr, Red Cell Physiol Lab, New York, NY 10021 USA.;[Liu, Jing] Cent S Univ, Mol Biol Res Ctr, Sch Biol Sci & Technol, Changsha, Hunan, Peoples R China.;[Liu, Jing] Cent S Univ, State Key Lab Med Genet China, Changsha, Hunan, Peoples R China.
[An, Xiuli] Lab Membrane Biol, 310 E 67th St, New York, NY 10065 USA.
[Yang, Huaming] Cent S Univ, Dept Inorgan Mat, Sch Minerals Proc & Bioengn, Changsha 410083, Peoples R China.
Palladium (Pd) nanoparticles were deposited on the surface of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) modified with gamma-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) to produce Pd/NH2-HNTs nanocomposites. The results indicated that Pd nanoparticles were densely immobilized onto NH2-HNTs with an average diameter of similar to 3 nm. The Pd distribution on the surface of silanized HNTs showed much more uniform, and the Pd nanoparticle size became smaller compared with those directly deposited onto HNTs without silanization. Systematic characterization demonstrated that APTES were chemically bonded onto HNTs, and further confirmed the bond formation between Pd and -NH2 groups, which could ensure the firm deposit of Pd nanoparticles on the surface of silanized HNTs. The as-synthesized Pd/NH2-HNTs exhibited an excellent catalytic activity in the liquid-phase hydrogenation of styrene to ethylbenzene with full conversion within 30 min. The mechanism of the deposit of Pd nanoparticles on silanized HNTs was also investigated.
[Zhang, Yuguang; Cong, Jing; Lu, Hui; Li, Diqiang; Liu, Xiao] Chinese Acad Forestry, Inst Forestry Ecol Environm & Protect, Beijing 100091, Peoples R China.;[Zhang, Yuguang; Cong, Jing; Lu, Hui; Li, Diqiang; Liu, Xiao] Chinese Acad Forestry, Key Lab Forest Ecol, Beijing 100091, Peoples R China.;[Zhang, Yuguang; Cong, Jing; Lu, Hui; Li, Diqiang; Liu, Xiao] Chinese Acad Forestry, Environm State Forestry Adm, Beijing 100091, Peoples R China.;[Cong, Jing; Liu, Xueduan; Yin, Huaqun] Cent S Univ, Sch Minerals Proc & Bioengn, Changsha 410083, Hunan, Peoples R China.;[Yang, Yunfeng; Zhou, Jizhong; Ding, Junjun] Tsinghua Univ, Sch Environm, State Key Joint Lab Environm Simulat & Pollut Con, Beijing 100084, Peoples R China.
[Zhang, Yuguang] Chinese Acad Forestry, Inst Forestry Ecol Environm & Protect, Beijing 100091, Peoples R China.
The succession of microbial community structure and function is a central ecological topic, as microbes drive the Earth's biogeochemical cycles. To elucidate the response and mechanistic underpinnings of soil microbial community structure and metabolic potential relevant to natural forest succession, we compared soil microbial communities from three adjacent natural forests: a coniferous forest (CF), a mixed broadleaf forest (MBF) and a deciduous broadleaf forest (DBF) on Shennongjia Mountain in central China. In contrary to plant communities, the microbial taxonomic diversity of the DBF was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those of CF and MBF, rendering their microbial community compositions markedly different. Consistently, microbial functional diversity was also highest in the DBF. Furthermore, a network analysis of microbial carbon and nitrogen cycling genes showed the network for the DBF samples was relatively large and tight, revealing strong couplings between microbes. Soil temperature, reflective of climate regimes, was important in shaping microbial communities at both taxonomic and functional gene levels. As a first glimpse of both the taxonomic and functional compositions of soil microbial communities, our results suggest that microbial community structure and function potentials will be altered by future environmental changes, which have implications for forest succession.
The adsorption of dodecylamine acetate (DAA), sodium oleate (NaOL) and DAA-NaOL mixtures on muscovite mica were investigated through flotation tests, zeta potential measurements, and pyrene fluorescence tests. The results show that the muscovite mica has a negative charge over the pH range 2-12. The muscovite mica did not float in the presence of NaOL alone. However, the recovery of muscovite mica ranged from ca. 80% (at pH 2) to 50% (at pH 11) using DDA alone. In the presence of mixed DAA-NaOL, recovery ranged from ca. 80% (at pH 2) to 90% (at pH 11). The individual cationic collectors DAA can be adsorbed strongly onto the muscovite mica, but no significant adsorption of anionic collectors NaOL can be detected by zeta potential measurements. In the mixed systems, the adsorption of both the cationic and anionic collectors are enhanced due to co-adsorption. The presence of NaOL in the mixture decreases the electrostatic head-head repulsion between the surface and ammonium ions and increases the lateral tail-tail hydrophobic bonds. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were conducted to further investigate the adsorption of DDA, NaOL, and DAA-NaOL on the (001) basal planes of muscovite using Materials Studio 5.0 program. The conclusions drawn from theoretical computations are in good agreement with experimental results. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.