Women;Regular sex partner;Men who have sex with men;Sexual health status;Mainland China
BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) are a high-risk group for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In China, the vast majority of MSM feel forced to marry or plan to marry women, according to traditional Chinese culture. Women who have regular sexual relations with MSM, called tongqi in mainland China, live with a high risk of STDs or HIV infection, but these risks are often ignored. Our investigation of this group of the women is a preliminary study that aims to understand the sexual health problems of tongqi and related factors. METHODS: This study relied on website mobilization and was funded by tongqi. Participants were limited to women who had sex with MSM to whom they were married (in-GWs), whom they had divorced (ex-GWs), or with whom they were friends (GGFs). The data were collected using questionnaire software. RESULTS: A total 144 valid surveys were returned from 100 in-GWs, 33 ex-GWs, and 11 GGFs. Average respondent age was 32.8 +/- 6.4 years (range 22 to 58 years). Among in-GWs and ex-GWs, over 95% learned that their husbands were MSM after marriage. More than half of respondents had had sex before marriage, and one-third of those women had sex partners other than their husbands. In addition, 35.3% of tongqi had STDs symptoms. About 50% participants had had oral sex with sex partners of MSM and 10% had had passive anal sex, with low condom use during both oral (9.7%) and anal sex (23.1%). Most tongqi had misunderstandings about STDs and HIV and less than 30% had undergone HIV screening. Among participants tested, 5.6% were HIV positive. A total 93.5% of respondents believed that laws should be established to protect the sexual rights of women. CONCLUSIONS: Women who have regular sexual relations with MSM face adverse sexual health issues and are susceptible to STDs and HIV infection. Measures must be taken to protect the rights and interests of tongqi in mainland China.
Li, Xianhong*;Zhang, Beichuan;Li, Yang;Antonio, Anna Liza Malazarte;Chen, Yunliang;Williams, Ann Bartley
Women & Health,2016年56(8):940-956 ISSN：0363-0242
[Williams, Ann Bartley] Univ Calif Los Angeles, Sch Nursing, Los Angeles, CA 90024 USA.;[Chen, Yunliang; Li, Xianhong] Cent S Univ, Sch Law, 605 Lu Shan Nan Lu, Changsha 410012, Hunan, Peoples R China.;[Antonio, Anna Liza Malazarte] Univ Calif Los Angeles, Fielding Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Los Angeles, CA USA.;[Zhang, Beichuan] Qingdao Univ, Coll Med, Affiliated Hosp, Qingdao, Shandong, Peoples R China.;[Li, Yang] Qingdao Sanat Shandong Prov, Dept Dermatol, Qingdao, Shandong, Peoples R China.
[Li, Xianhong] Cent S Univ, Sch Law, 605 Lu Shan Nan Lu, Changsha 410012, Hunan, Peoples R China.
China;HIV;mental health;men who have sex with men;spouses;suicidal ideation
In China, men who have sex with men (MSM) are the fastest growing population at risk for HIV. They face social stigma due to both MSM behavior and HIV. In addition, concern has been raised about the mental health of wives of MSM. In this cross-sectional study, the authors examine the mental health status of a sample of 135 of these women. Participants completed an Internet-administered questionnaire in Xi’an from April to June, 2012. Most were unaware at the time of marriage that their husbands were MSM. Physical abuse was frequently reported; depressive symptom and mental health (Symptom Checklist, SCL–90) scores were significantly higher than those of the general Chinese adult female population. A majority (59.8%) of women reported suicidal thoughts after discovering their husbands’ MSM behavior; about 10% had attempted suicide. Multiple logistic regression revealed that women’s experience with anal sex was associated with 7.8 times (95% CI: 1.3–65.9) greater odds of suicidal ideation. Also, women who demonstrated mental symptoms on the SCL–90 had 2.3 times (95% CI: 1.04–5.2) the odds of suicidal ideation. These results suggest that wives of MSM have a significant need for mental health care, suicide prevention, HIV education, and social support.