BMC public health,2017年17(1):168 ISSN：1471-2458
[Yu, Peiheng] Research Projects of Gay Men's Wives, Qingdao, Shandong, 266012, China;[Li, Xiufang] Department of Sex Health Center, Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, 16 Jiangsu Street, Qingdao, Shandong, 266003, China. email@example.com;[Zhang, Beichuan; Liu, Xinqiao] Department of Sex Health Center, Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, 16 Jiangsu Street, Qingdao, Shandong, 266003, China;[Li, Yang] Department of Dermatology, National Center for STD Control, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Nanjing, Jiangsu, 210042, China;[Wang, Juan] Department of Dermatology, Jiaozhou Central Hospital of Qingdao, 29 Xuzhou Street, Jiaozhou, Shandong, 266300, China
[Li, Xiufang] Department of Sex Health Center, Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, 16 Jiangsu Street, Qingdao, Shandong, 266003, China.
Women;Regular sex partner;Men who have sex with men;Sexual health status;Mainland China
BACKGROUND: Men who have sex with men (MSM) are a high-risk group for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In China, the vast majority of MSM feel forced to marry or plan to marry women, according to traditional Chinese culture. Women who have regular sexual relations with MSM, called tongqi in mainland China, live with a high risk of STDs or HIV infection, but these risks are often ignored. Our investigation of this group of the women is a preliminary study that aims to understand the sexual health problems of tongqi and related factors. METHODS: This study relied on website mobilization and was funded by tongqi. Participants were limited to women who had sex with MSM to whom they were married (in-GWs), whom they had divorced (ex-GWs), or with whom they were friends (GGFs). The data were collected using questionnaire software. RESULTS: A total 144 valid surveys were returned from 100 in-GWs, 33 ex-GWs, and 11 GGFs. Average respondent age was 32.8 +/- 6.4 years (range 22 to 58 years). Among in-GWs and ex-GWs, over 95% learned that their husbands were MSM after marriage. More than half of respondents had had sex before marriage, and one-third of those women had sex partners other than their husbands. In addition, 35.3% of tongqi had STDs symptoms. About 50% participants had had oral sex with sex partners of MSM and 10% had had passive anal sex, with low condom use during both oral (9.7%) and anal sex (23.1%). Most tongqi had misunderstandings about STDs and HIV and less than 30% had undergone HIV screening. Among participants tested, 5.6% were HIV positive. A total 93.5% of respondents believed that laws should be established to protect the sexual rights of women. CONCLUSIONS: Women who have regular sexual relations with MSM face adverse sexual health issues and are susceptible to STDs and HIV infection. Measures must be taken to protect the rights and interests of tongqi in mainland China.
Yan, Huiqi;van Rooij, Benjamin;van der Heijden, Jeroen
LAW & POLICY,2015年37(3):240-263 ISSN：0265-8240
[van Rooij, Benjamin] Univ Calif Irvine, US China Business & Law, Sch Law, Irvine, CA 92717 USA.;[Yan, Huiqi] Cent S Univ, Sch Publ Adm, Changsha, Hunan, Peoples R China.;[Yan, Huiqi] Univ Amsterdam, Sch Law, NL-1012 WX Amsterdam, Netherlands.;[van der Heijden, Jeroen] Univ Amsterdam, Amsterdam Law Sch, NL-1012 WX Amsterdam, Netherlands.;[van der Heijden, Jeroen] Australian Natl Univ, Regulatory Inst Network RegNet, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia.
[Rooij, B] Univ Calif Irvine, US China Business & Law, 401 East Peltason Dr Suite 4800K, Irvine, CA 92697 USA.
This article analyzes how cost-benefit calculation influences compliance with pesticide regulation by Chinese farmers. Building on a study including 150 farmers and experts, it studies how operational costs and benefits and deterrence affect compliance. Moreover, it studies what variation in cost-benefit perceptions there are with different types of rules, farms, and villages. It finds that, in this context, cost-benefit calculation matters for compliance; with operational costs and benefits being more clearly related to compliant behavior than deterrence. It highlights that perceptions about costs and benefits are situational and vary along the type of legal rule and the type of regulated actor. It also shows that such perceptions are individually subjective, as even with similar rules and similar types of actors, perceptions vary. The paper concludes by stating expectations on how the situational and subjective nature of cost-benefit calculation can inform regulators seeking to enhance compliance.