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Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks, 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

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期刊论文
作者:
Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.;Afshin, Ashkan;Alexander, Lily T.;Anderson, H. Ross;Bhutta, Zulficiar A.;Biryukov, Stan;Brauer, Michael;Burnett, Richard;Cercy, Kelly;Charlson, Fiona J.;Cohen, Aaron J.;Dandona, Lalit;Estep, Kara;Ferrari, Alize J.;Frostad, Joseph J.;Fullman, Nancy;Gething, Peter W.;Godwin, William W.;Griswold, Max;Kinfu, Yohannes;Kyu, Hmwe H.;Larson, Heidi J.;Liang, Xiaofeng;Lim, Stephen S.;Liu, Patrick Y.;Lopez, Alan D.;Lozano, Rafael;Marczak, Laurie;Mensah, George A.;Mokdad, Ali H.;Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar;Naghavi, Mohsen;Neal, Bruce;Reitsma, Marissa B.;Roth, Gregory A.;Salomon, Joshua A.;Sur, Patrick J.;Vos, Theo;Wagner, Joseph A.;Wang, Haidong;Zhao, Yi;Zhou, Maigeng;Aasvang, Gunn Marit;Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu;Abate, Kalkidan Hassen;Abbafati, Cristiana;Abbas, Kaja M.;Abd-Allah, Foad;Abdulle, Abdishakur M.;Abera, Semaw Ferede;Abraham, Biju;Abu-Raddad, Laith J.;Abyu, Gebre Yitayih;Adebiyi, Akindele Olupelumi;Adedeji, Isaac Akinkunmi;Ademi, Zanfina;Adou, Arsene Kouablan;Adsuar, Jose C.;Agardh, Emilie Elisabet;Agarwal, Arnav;Agrawal, Anurag;Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad;Ajala, Oluremi N.;Akinyemiju, Tomi F.;Al-Aly, Ziyad;Alam, Khurshid;Alam, Noore K. M.;Aldhahri, Saleh Fahed;Aldridge, Robert William;Alemu, Zewdie Aderaw;Ali, Raghib;Alkerwi, Ala'a;Alla, Francois;Allebeck, Peter;Alsharif, Ubai;Altirkawi, Khalid A.;Alvarez Martin, Elena;Alvis-Guzman, Nelson;Amare, Azmeraw T.;Amberbir, Alemayehu;Amegah, Adeladza Kofi;Amini, Heresh;Ammar, Walid;Amrock, Stephen Marc;Andersen, Hjalte H.;Anderson, Benjamin O.;Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.;Anwar, Palwasha;Arnlov, Johan;Al Artaman;Asayesh, Hamid;Asghar, Rana Jawad;Assadi, Reza;Atique, Suleman;Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G. Arthur;Awasthi, Ashish;Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina Ayala;Azzopardi, Peter;Bacha, Umar;Badawi, Alaa;Bahit, Maria C.;Balakrishnan, Kalpana;Barac, Aleksandra;Barber, Ryan M.;Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.;Baernighausen, Till;Barquera, Simon;Barregard, Lars;Barrero, Lope H.;Basu, Sanjay;Bans, Carolina;Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad;Beardsley, Justin;Bedi, Neeraj;Beghi, Ettore;Bell, Michelle L.;Bello, Aminu K.;Bennett, Derrick A.;Bensenor, Isabela M.;Berhane, Adugnaw;Bernabe, Eduardo;Betsu, Balem Demtsu;Beyene, Addisu Shunu;Bhala, Neeraj;Bhansali, Anil;Bhatt, Samir;Biadgilign, Sibhatu;Bikbov, Boris;Bisanzio, Donal;Bjertness, Espen;Blore, Jed D.;Borschmann, Rohan;Boufous, Soufiane;Bourne, Rupert R. A.;Brainin, Michael;Brazinova, Alexandra;Breitborde, Nicholas J. K.;Brenner, Hermann;Broday, David M.;Brugha, Traolach S.;Brunekreef, Bert;Butt, Zahid A.;Cahill, Leah E.;Calabria, Bianca;Ricardo Campos-Nonato, Ismael;Cardenas, Rosario;Carpenter, David;Casey, Daniel C.;Castaneda-Oquela, Carlos A.;Castillo Rivas, Jacqueline;Estanislao Castro, Ruben;Catala-Lopez, Ferran;Chang, Jung-Chen;Chiang, Peggy Pei-Chia;Chibalabala, Mirriam;Chimed-Ochir, Odgerel;Chisumpa, Vesper Hichilombwe;Chitheer, Abdulaal A.;Choi, Jee-Young Jasmine;Christensen, Hanne;Christopher, Devasahayam Jesudas;Ciobanu, Liliana G.;Coates, Matthew M.;Colquhoun, Samantha M.;Cooper, Leslie Trumbull;Cooperrider, Kimberly;Cornaby, Leslie;Cortinovis, Monica;Crump, John A.;Cuevas-Nasu, Lucia;Damasceno, Albertino;Dandona, Rakhi;Darby, Sarah C.;Dargan, Paul I.;das Neves, Jose;Davis, Adrian C.;Davletov, Kairat;Filipa de Castro, E.;De la Cruz-Gongora, Vanessa;De Leo, Diego;Degenhardt, Louisa;Del Gobbo, Liana C.;del Pozo-Cruz, Borja;Dellavalle, Robert P.;Deribew, Amare;Des Jarlais, Don C.;Dharmaratne, Samath D.;Dhillon, Preet K.;Diaz-Tome, Cesar;Dicker, Daniel;Ding, Eric L.;Dorsey, E. Ray;Doyle, Kerrie E.;Driscoll, Tim R.;Duan, Leilei;Dubey, Manisha;Duncan, Bruce Bartholow;Elyazar, Iqbal;Endries, Aman Yesuf;Ermakov, Sergey Petrovich;Erskine, Holly E.;Eshrati, Babak;Esteghamati, Alireza;Fahimi, Saman;Aquino Faraon, Emerito Jose;Farid, Talha A.;Sofia E Sa Farinha, Carla;Faro, Andre;Farvid, Maryam S.;Farzadfar, Farshad;Feigin, Valery L.;Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad;Fernandes, Jefferson G.;Fischer, Florian;Fitchett, Joseph R. A.;Fleming, Tom;Foigt, Nataliya;Foreman, Kyle;Fowkes, F. Gerry R.;Franklin, Richard C.;Fuerst, Thomas;Futran, Neal D.;Gakidou, Emmanuela;Garcia-Basteiro, Alberto L.;Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde;Gebremedhin, Amanuel Tesfay;Geleijnse, Johanna M.;Gessner, Bradford D.;Giref, Ababi Zergaw;Giroud, Maurice;Gishu, Melkamu Dedefo;Goenka, Shifalika;Carmen Gomez-Cabrera, Mari;Gomez-Dantes, Hector;Gona, Philimon;Goodridge, Amador;Gopalani, Sameer Vali;Gotay, Carolyn C.;Goto, Atsushi;Gouda, Hebe N.;Gugnani, Harish Chander;Guillemin, Francis;Guo, Yuming;Gupta, Rahul;Gupta, Rajeev;Gutierrez, Reyna A.;Haagsma, Juanita A.;Hafezi-Nejad, Nima;Haile, Demewoz;Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa;Halasa, Yara A.;Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi;Hamidi, Samer;Handal, Alexis J.;Hankey, Graeme J.;Hao, Yuantao;Harb, Hilda L.;Harikrishnan, Sivadasanpillai;Maria Haro, Josep;Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh;Hassen, Tahir Ahmed;Havmoeller, Rasmus;Beatriz Heredia-Pi, Ileana;Francisco Hernandez-Llanes, Norberto;Heydarpour, Pouria;Hoek, Hans W.;Hoffman, Howard J.;Horino, Masako;Horita, Nobuyuki;Hosgood, H. Dean;Hoy, Damian G.;Hsairi, Mohamed;Htet, Aung Soe;Hu, Guoqing;Huang, John J.;Husseini, Abdullatif;Hutchings, Sally J.;Huybrechts, Inge;Iburg, Kim Moesgaard;Idrisov, Bulat T.;Ileanu, Bogdan Vasile;Inoue, Manami;Jacobs, Troy A.;Jacobsen, Kathryn H.;Jahanmehr, Nader;Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B.;Jansen, Henrica A. F. M.;Jassal, Simerjot K.;Javanbakht, Mehdi;Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra;Jee, Sun Ha;Jeemon, Panniyammakal;Jha, Vivekanand;Jiang, Ying;Jibat, Tariku;Jin, Ye;Johnson, Catherine O.;Jonas, Jost B.;Kabir, Zubair;Kalkonde, Yogeshwar;Kamal, Ritul;Kan, Haidong;Karch, Andre;Karema, Corine Kakizi;Karimkhani, Chante;Kasaeian, Amir;Kaul, Anil;Kawakami, Norito;Kazi, Dhruv S.;Keiyoro, Peter Njenga;Kemp, Andrew Haddon;Kengne, Andre Pascal;Keren, Andre;Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair;Khader, Yousef Saleh;Khan, Abdur Rahman;Khan, Ejaz Ahmad;Khan, Gulfaraz;Khang, Young-Ho;Khatibzadeh, Shahab;Khera, Sahil;Khoja, Tawfik Ahmed Muthafer;Khubchandani, Jagdish;Kieling, Christian;Kim, Cho-il;Kim, Daniel;Kimokoti, Ruth W.;Kissoon, Niranjan;Kivipelto, Miia;Knibbs, Luke D.;Kokubo, Yoshihiro;Kopec, Jacek A.;Koul, Parvaiz A.;Koyanagi, Ai;Kravchenko, Michael;Kromhout, Hans;Krueger, Hans;Ku, Tiffany;Defo, Barthelemy Kuate;Kuchenbecker, Ricardo S.;Bicer, Burcu Kucuk;Kuipers, Ernst J.;Kumar, G. Anil;Kwan, Gene F.;Lal, Dharmesh Kumar;Lalloo, Ratilal;Lallukka, Tea;Lan, Qing;Larsson, Anders;Latif, Asma Abdul;Beatriz Lawrynowicz, Alicia Elena;Leasher, Janet L.;Leigh, James;Leung, Janni;Levi, Miriam;Li, Xiaohong;Li, Yichong;Liang, Juan;Liu, Shiwei;Lloyd, Belinda K.;Logroscino, Giancarlo;Lotufo, Paulo A.;Lunevicius, Raimundas;Maclntyre, Michael;Mahdavi, Mandi;Majdan, Marek;Majeed, Azeem;Malekzadeh, Reza;Malta, Deborah Carvalho;Manamo, Wondimu Ayele Ayele;Mapoma, Chabila C.;Marcenes, Wagner;Martin, Randall V.;Martinez-Raga, Jose;Masiye, Felix;Matsushita, Kunihiro;Matzopoulos, Richard;Mayosi, Bongani M.;McGrath, John J.;McKee, Martin;Meaney, Peter A.;Medina, Catalina;Mehari, Alem;Mena-Rodriguez, Fabiola;Mekonnen, Alemayehu B.;Melaku, Yohannes Adama;Memish, Ziad A.;Mendoza, Walter;Mensink, Gert B. M.;Meretoja, Atte;Meretoja, Tuomo J.;Mesfin, Yonatan Moges;Mhimbira, Francis Apolinary;Miller, Ted R.;Mills, Edward J.;Mirarefin, Mojde;Misganaw, Awoke;Mock, Charles N.;Mohammadi, Alireza;Mohammed, Shafiu;Mola, Glen Liddell D.;Monasta, Lorenzo;Montanez Hernandez, Julio Cesar;Montico, Marcella;Morawska, Lidia;Mori, Rintaro;Mozaffarian, Dariush;Mueller, Ulrich O.;Mullany, Erin;Mumford, John Everett;Murthy, Gudlavalleti Venkata Satyanarayana;Nachega, Jean B.;Naheed, Aliya;Nangia, Vinay;Nassiri, Nariman;Newton, John N.;Ng, Marie;Quyen Le Nguyen;Nisar, Muhammad Imran;Pete, Patrick Martial Nkamedjie;Norheim, Ole F.;Norman, Rosana E.;Norrving, Bo;Nyakarahuka, Luke;Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf;Ogbo, Felix Akpojene;Oh, In-Hwan;Oladimeji, Olanrewaju;Olivares, Pedro R.;Olsen, Helen;Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola;Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun;Opio, John Nelson;Oren, Eyal;Orozco, Ricardo;Ortiz, Alberto;Ota, Erika;Mahesh, P. A.;Pana, Adrian;Park, Eun-Kee;Parry, Charles D.;Parsaeian, Mahboubeh;Patel, Tejas;Caicedo, Angel J. Paternina;Patil, Snehal T.;Patten, Scott B.;Patton, George C.;Pearce, Neil;Pereira, David M.;Perico, Norberto;Pesudovs, Konrad;Petzold, Max;Phillips, Michael Robert;Piel, Frederic B.;Pillay, Julian David;Plass, Dietrich;Polinder, Suzanne;Pond, Constance D.;Pope, C. Arden;Pope, Daniel;Popova, Svetlana;Poulton, Richie G.;Pourmalek, Farshad;Prasad, Noela M.;Qorbani, Mostafa;Rabiee, Rynaz H. S.;Radfar, Amir;Rafay, Anwar;Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa;Rahman, Mahfuzar;Rahman, Mohammad Hifz Ur;Rahman, Sajjad Ur;Rai, Rajesh Kumar;Rajsic, Sasa;Raju, Murugesan;Ram, Usha;Rana, Saleem M.;Ranganathan, Kavitha;Rao, Puja;Razo Garcia, Christian Aspacia;Refaat, Amany H.;Rehm, Colin D.;Rehm, Jurgen;Reinig, Nikolas;Remuzzi, Giuseppe;Resnikoff, Serge;Ribeiro, Antonio L.;Rivera, Juan A.;Rolm, Hirbo Shore;Rodriguez, Anna;Rodriguez-Ramirez, Sonia;Rojas-Rueda, David;Roman, Yesenia;Ronfani, Luca;Roshandel, Gholamreza;Rothenbacher, Dietrich;Roy, Ambuj;Saleh, Muhammad Muhammad;Sanabria, Juan R.;Dolores Sanchez-Nino, Maria;Sanchez-Pimienta, Tania G.;Sandar, Logan;Santomauro, Damian F.;Santos, Itamar S.;Sarmiento-Suarez, Rodrigo;Sartorius, Benn;Satpathy, Maheswar;Savic, Miloje;Sawhney, Monika;Schmidhuber, Josef;Schmidt, Maria Ines;Schneider, Ione J. C.;Schoettker, Ben;Schutte, Aletta E.;Schwebel, David C.;Scott, James G.;Seedat, Soraya;Sepanlou, Sadaf G.;Servan-Mori, Edson E.;Shaheen, Amira;Shahraz, Saeid;Shaikh, Masood Ali;Levy, Teresa Shamah;Sharma, Rajesh;She, Jun;Sheikhbahaei, Sara;Shen, Jiabin;Sheth, Kevin N.;Shi, Peilin;Shibuya, Kenji;Shigematsu, Mika;Shin, Min-Jeong;Shiri, Rahman;Shishani, Kawkab;Shiue, Ivy;Shrime, Mark G.;Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora;Silva, Diego Augusto Santos;Alves Silveira, Dayane Gabriele;Silverberg, Jonathan I.;Simard, Edgar P.;Sindi, Shireen;Singh, Abhishek;Singh, Jasvinder A.;Singh, Prashant Kumar;Slepak, Erica Leigh;Soljak, Michael;Soneji, Samir;Sorensen, Reed J. D.;Sposato, Luciano A.;Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.;Stathopoulou, Vasiliki;Steckling, Nadine;Steel, Nicholas;Stein, Dan J.;Stein, Murray B.;Stockl, Heidi;Stranges, Saverio;Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos;Sunguya, Bruno F.;Swaminathan, Soumya;Sykes, Bryan L.;Szoeke, Cassandra E. I.;Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael;Takahashi, Ken;Talongwa, Roberto Tchio;Landon, Nikhil;Tanne, David;Tavakkoli, Mohammad;Taye, Belaynew Wasie;Taylor, Hugh R.;Tedla, Bemnet Amare;Tefera, Worku Mekonnen;Tegegne, Teketo Kassaw;Tekle, Dejen Yemane;Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman;Thakur, J. S.;Thomas, Bernadette A.;Thomas, Matthew Lloyd;Thomson, Alan J.;Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L.;Thrift, Amanda G.;Thurston, George D.;Tillmann, Taavi;Tobe-Gai, Ruoyan;Tobollik, Myriam;Topor-Madry, Roman;Topouzis, Fotis;Towbin, Jeffrey Allen;Bach Xuan Tran;Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala;Tsilimparis, Nikolaos;Tura, Abera Kenay;Tuzcu, Emin Murat;Tyrovolas, Stefanos;Ukwaja, Kingsley N.;Undurraga, Eduardo A.;Uneke, Chigozie Jesse;Uthman, Olalekan A.;van Donkelaar, Aaron;van Os, Jim;Varakin, Yuri Y.;Vasankari, Tommi;Veerman, J. Lennert;Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy;Violante, Francesco S.;Vollset, Stein Emil;Wagner, Gregory R.;Waller, Stephen G.;Wang, JianLi;Wang, Linhong;Wang, Yanping;Weichenthal, Scott;Weiderpass, Elisabete;Weintraub, Robert G.;Werdecker, Andrea;Westerman, Ronny;Whiteford, Harvey A.;Wijeratne, Tissa;Wiysonge, Charles Shey;Wolfe, Charles D. A.;Won, Sungho;Woolf, Anthony D.;Wubshet, Mamo;Xavier, Denis;Xu, Gelin;Yadav, Ajit Kumar;Yakob, Bereket;Yalew, Ayalnesh Zemene;Yano, Yuichiro;Yaseri, Mehdi;Ye, Pengpeng;Yip, Paul;Yonemoto, Naohiro;Yoon, Seok-Jun;Younis, Mustafa Z.;Yu, Chuanhua;Zaidi, Zoubida;Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed;Zhu, Jun;Zipkin, Ben;Zodpey, Sanjay;Zuhlke, Liesl Joanna;Murray, Christopher J. L.
作者机构:
[Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Afshin, Ashkan; Alexander, Lily T.; Biryukov, Stan; Brauer, Michael; Cercy, Kelly; Charlson, Fiona J.; Cohen, Aaron J.; Dandona, Lalit; Estep, Kara; Ferrari, Alize J.; Frostad, Joseph J.; Fullman, Nancy; Godwin, William W.; Griswold, Max; Kyu, Hmwe H.; Larson, Heidi J.; Lim, Stephen S.; Liu, Patrick Y.; Lopez, Alan D.; Lozano, Rafael; Marczak, Laurie; Mokdad, Ali H.; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Naghavi, Mohsen; Reitsma, Marissa B.; Roth, Gregory A.; Sur, Patrick J.; Vos, Theo; Wagner, Joseph A.; Wang, Haidong; Zhao, Yi; Zhou, Maigeng; Barber, Ryan M.; Blore, Jed D.; Casey, Daniel C.; Coates, Matthew M.; Cooperrider, Kimberly; Cornaby, Leslie; Dicker, Daniel; Erskine, Holly E.; Fleming, Tom; Foreman, Kyle; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Johnson, Catherine O.; Ku, Tiffany; Leung, Janni; Mirarefin, Mojde; Misganaw, Awoke; Mullany, Erin; Mumford, John Everett; Ng, Marie; Olsen, Helen; Rao, Puja; Reinig, Nikolas; Roman, Yesenia; Sandar, Logan; Santomauro, Damian F.; Slepak, Erica Leigh; Sorensen, Reed J. D.; Thomas, Bernadette A.; Vollset, Stein Emil; Whiteford, Harvey A.; Zipkin, Ben; Murray, Christopher J. L.] Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.
[Anderson, H. Ross] St Georges Univ London, Populat Hlth Res Inst, London, England.
[Bhutta, Zulficiar A.] Aga Khan Univ, Ctr Excellence Women & Child Hlth, Karachi, Pakistan.
[Bhutta, Zulficiar A.] Hosp Sick Children, Ctr Global Child Hlth, Toronto, ON, Canada.
[Burnett, Richard] Hlth Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
语种:
英文
期刊:
LANCET
ISSN:
0140-6736
年:
2016
卷:
388
期:
10053
页码:
1659-1724
文献类别:
WOS:Article
所属学科:
ESI学科类别:临床医学;WOS学科类别:Medicine, General & Internal
入藏号:
基金类别:
Bill AMP; Melinda Gates Foundation
机构署名:
本校为其他机构
院系归属:
公共管理学院
基础医学院
湘雅公共卫生学院
物理与电子学院
湘雅护理学院
摘要:
Background The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 provides an up-to-date synthesis of the evidence for risk factor exposure and the attributable burden of disease. By providing national and subnational assessments spanning the past 25 years, this study can inform debates on the importance of addressing risks in context. Methods We used the comparative risk assessment framework developed for previous iterations of the Global Burden of Disease Study to estimate attributable deaths, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and trends in exposure by age group, sex, year, and geography for 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks from 1990 to 2015. This study included 388 risk-outcome pairs that met World Cancer Research Fund-defined criteria for convincing or probable evidence. We extracted relative risk and exposure estimates from randomised controlled trials, cohorts, pooled cohorts, household surveys, census data, satellite data, and other sources. We used statistical models to pool data, adjust for bias, and incorporate covariates. We developed a metric that allows comparisons of exposure across risk factors-the summary exposure value. Using the counterfactual scenario of theoretical minimum risk level, we estimated the portion of deaths and DALYs that could be attributed to a given risk. We decomposed trends in attributable burden into contributions from population growth, population age structure, risk exposure, and risk-deleted cause-specific DALY rates. We characterised risk exposure in relation to a Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Findings Between 1990 and 2015, global exposure to unsafe sanitation, household air pollution, childhood underweight, childhood stunting, and smoking each decreased by more than 25%. Global exposure for several occupational risks, high body-mass index (BMI), and drug use increased by more than 25% over the same period. All risks jointly evaluated in 2015 accounted for 57.8% (95% CI 56.6-58.8) of global deaths and 41.2% (39.8-42.8) of DALYs. In 2015, the ten largest contributors to global DALYs among Level 3 risks were high systolic blood pressure (211.8 million [192.7 million to 231.1 million] global DALYs), smoking (148.6 million [134.2 million to 163.1 million]), high fasting plasma glucose (143.1 million [125.1 million to 163.5 million]), high BMI (120.1 million [83.8 million to 158.4 million]), childhood undernutrition (113.3 million [103.9 million to 123.4 million]), ambient particulate matter (103.1 million [90.8 million to 115.1 million]), high total cholesterol (88.7 million [74.6 million to 105.7 million]), household air pollution (85.6 million [66.7 million to 106.1 million]), alcohol use (85.0 million [77.2 million to 93.0 million]), and diets high in sodium (83.0 million [49.3 million to 127.5 million]). From 1990 to 2015, attributable DALYs declined for micronutrient deficiencies, childhood undernutrition, unsafe sanitation and water, and household air pollution; reductions in risk-deleted DALY rates rather than reductions in exposure drove these declines. Rising exposure contributed to notable increases in attributable DALYs from high BMI, high fasting plasma glucose, occupational carcinogens, and drug use. Environmental risks and childhood undernutrition declined steadily with SDI; low physical activity, high BMI, and high fasting plasma glucose increased with SDI. In 119 countries, metabolic risks, such as high BMI and fasting plasma glucose, contributed the most attributable DALYs in 2015. Regionally, smoking still ranked among the leading five risk factors for attributable DALYs in 109 countries; childhood underweight and unsafe sex remained primary drivers of early death and disability in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Interpretation Declines in some key environmental risks have contributed to declines in critical infectious diseases. Some risks appear to be invariant to SDI. Increasing risks, including high BMI, high fasting plasma glucose, drug use, and some occupational exposures, contribute to rising burden from some conditions, but also provide opportunities for intervention. Some highly preventable risks, such as smoking, remain major causes of attributable DALYs, even as exposure is declining. Public policy makers need to pay attention to the risks that are increasingly major contributors to global burden. Copyright (C) The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.
参考文献:
Afshin A, 2015, CURR CARDIOL REP, V17, DOI 10.1007/s11886-015-0658-9
American Institute for Cancer Research, 2007, FOOD NUTR PHYS ACT P
ANDERSON BO, 1995, ANN SURG ONCOL, V2, P407, DOI 10.1007/BF02306373
Arulogun S, 2016, INTERN MED J, DOI [10.1111/imj.13051, DOI 10.1111/IMJ.13051.]
Au Yeung S L, 2012, Am J Epidemiol, V175, P1021, DOI 10.1093/aje/kwr462

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