Objective: To evaluate and analyze the risk factors for burning mouth syndrome (BMS). Methods: Eighty‐seven consecutive patients with BMS and a randomly selected control group (n = 82) were comprehensively investigated with a self‐designed questionnaire, Self‐rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and Self‐rating Depression Scale (SDS). A complete blood count and serum sex hormone were also examined in patients with BMS and control subjects. All the data obtained were transferred to a data bank and analyzed statistically in spss 11.5 for windows. Results: No statistical difference between the BMS group and the control group was found in blood analyses including white blood cell count, red blood cell count, hemoglobin and platelet count. Among the menopausal or postmenopausal women with BMS, the follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) level was significantly higher, but the estradiol level was significantly lower. The BMS group reported adverse life events more frequently than the control group. Patients with BMS significantly exhibited symptoms of somatization, and both the scores of anxiety, depression in patients with BMS were higher than those of the control group (P < 0.05). A regression equation which included six variables had been established by using logistic regression analysis, indicating that the habit of tongue thrusting, lip sucking, periodontitis, smoking, outcome of recent medication, depression were the principal risk factors, among which tongue thrusting was the most significant. Conclusion: Our study indicated that BMS may be of psychological origin, and the measures such as refraining from oral parafunctional activities, removing local irritating factors, stopping smoking, good mental health status could help in the prevention of BMS.